How radiation affects DNA?


All of us are conscious of nuclear disaster and most people know how to it can be dangerous for us, it damages our DNA but how? let’s know.

What is radiation?

Radiation is energy in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It can be naturally occurring or artificially generated. Ionizing radiation, the most energetic type, can knock electrons out of the atoms in a process called ionization. This can damage DNA within your body cells.

Radiation can be considered in ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiations, which ionize atoms of our body cells and knock out electrons from atoms, which are x-rays and gamma rays and non-ionizing radiation are that which do not cause bad effects like ionizing one.

In the metric system, a radiation dose is measured in units called sievertsSmall doses such as those received from medical x-rays are measured in millisieverts (1/1,000) or microsieverts (1/1,000,000). Sometimes it is measured in rem ( 1 rem equals 10 millisieverts).

How it affects our DNAs?

When cells and what lies within them come to contact with the radiation, components of DNA get ionized by radiation, meaning that the electrons with atoms are kicked out from the chain and causes genetic changes in our body cells.

It does not affect our DNA as well the whole body.  Ionizing radiation leads to the production of free radicals and breaks critical chemical bonds. Generally, cells are damaged by free radicals all the time and repair themselves to keep the body healthy, therefore high doses of radiation can damage the cell’s ability to repair itself. Radiation kills rapidly dividing cells which is why we use it to treat fast-growing cancer cells. Some sensitive areas of our body which can be damaged or denatured by radiation exposer are the brain, eyes, thyroid (thyroid cancer), lungs, heart, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive organs, lymphatic system, and skin.

Please give your feedback on it. Thank you!!!

Read also. How to research a topic easily.Upgrade your brain.,

How the brain pays attention?


How the brain pays attention?

rubik qubesr

How the brain chooses what most deserves attention?

“There are a million things out there in the world bombarding our eyes, our ears, our skin, and other sensory organs. Of all those things, what particular piece of information do we most need to pay attention to at any instant to drive our behaviour.

Despite studying the forebrain of animals for decades, scientists have not found a good answer to the question of how the brain decides what to pay attention to.  The researcher decided instead to look at the midbrain, an evolutionarily older part of the brain found in everything from fish and mammals to birds and humans.

The researchers choose owls to study because they not only have sharp vision and hearing but also, like all birds, they have a midbrain organized in a way that makes it relatively easy to track the activity of specific neurons.

Here, while measuring the activity of individual neurons in owl’s midbrain, they found puzzling and unexpected. Although individual neurons usually encode visual space topography, meaning neighboring neurons encode the spaces for neighboring parts of the world, here they found single neurons responding to several pockets of locations, sometimes very far apart.

See also.  How to research a topic easily.


How to research a topic easily.


Success is a science; If you have the conditions, you get the results. Many students dream of being about a scientist, publishing their own research and being famous as Albert Einstein, actually it is not so easy researching anything without following a worthful process and having a better knowledge on the specific area. Don’t worry so much about this set back even if you have less knowledge.

So this article is written especially for you. Now let’s start your journey.

The art and science of asking questions is the source of all knowledge.

1. Picking out a topic which is worthful:

Selecting a topic ought to be done wisely because it changes the way to research every time. It leads your success so you should take a topic which is worthful, easy for you and problem-solving. Let’s consider an instance of AIDS/HIV which is incurable yet.

2. Study about the topic:

Now you should have a better concept The science of hive and aidson the topic on which you are going to research something. You should study on your topic deeply, here we have already taken an instance of AIDS/HIV. First, you should know the science of AIDS/HIV.

3. Study on the related topic:

It is necessary to know also about related topics, it gives us a better understanding of your research topic. Here HIV is a retrovirus (any of a group of RNA viruses which insert a DNA copy of their genome into the host cell in order to replicate) so it is necessary to know about different retroviruses in order to treat them better.

4. Study about every component related to the topic:

We already know structural details of the all retroviruses including HIV, further, we should know the structure and behavior of all its structural units to perform an exact experiment.

5. Study all the related researches:

This is the most important step of the whole process, knowing all related research on AIDS/HIV carried by others will give you extra marks in your research.

6. Trying experiments and collecting observations:

Now we are on the final step. Mind we are solving the incurable problem of AIDS/HIV. To destroy it we should need vaccines or drugs, we will try an experiment in every way. In this section, our creativity will be examined what we have in our brain. Mind it every observation should be collected carefully.

7. Be confident and publish your research:

Now we have done our experiments and found a desirable conclusion. You can publish your research in any research journal or can also apply for the patent to have the exclusive right.

In this article, I have tried to explain through an instance of AIDS/HIV but this belongs only not to biology but also to every field. You should implement it in your own ways for any kind of research. That’s all.

What is your view on this article? Please give feedback via comments. Thanks!!!

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Upgrade your brain.

Hello everyone, how are you today? If you’re also looking for easy and simple ideas to enhance your brain power then you are on the right track. In this article, I mentioned some simpler ideas for you. 

After reading this article you’ll realize “Yes I can.”

So let’s start your journey with

1. Stay healthy always

“Health” leads our life in every situation so a healthy person can handle most of life’s problem easily if he has the strong willpower. Your health always affects your family, job, friends and also your study so you ought to be healthy for being the mentally strong person because your physical health directly affects your mental health.

You should think # how to stay healthy always.

2. Yoga and exercise

Yoga is one of the best creation of ancient India. There are many kinds of yoga postures for men and women as per one’s previous health condition. For better mental health as well as physical you should try yoga classes or you can also search for content related to yoga on the internet. You can do also exercise at home, it is free of cost.

3. Meditation

Yes, meditation really works for better concentration and mental health but you should try it in the right way. If you meditate in the wrong way or more than enough, it may cause a little headache but if it will be done in the right way it really beneficiate you. As per my experience if you are a beginner then you should try dot meditation.

4. Enough Sleep

According to most researches and studies, a better sleep makes your day energetic and it is also good for better health. How many hours should you sleep? 5,6,7 or 8 no it depends on your health, Generally, you should sleep more than 6hrs.

A better sleep is better for a better memory.

5. Avoid mental laziness

Mental laziness? Yes, when you avoid calculations and arguments it can be defined as mental laziness. According to our classical physics simplicity is better than the complexity that’s why our mind chooses simple task instead of complex. So give your brain a right stress.

Give your brain a right stress.

6. Set a goal

Setting up a goal encourages us to perform better in every condition and it is most helpful to overcome misleading things. When you dedicated for your a goal in your life you will feel a kind of hunger to achieve that. You will use your mind in the right direction. Ask yourself when was happiest moment for you in your past time, I think it may be a moment of achieving your goal or completion of a big expectation. Always mind don’t set an imaginary goal.

7. Keep your task always complete

Completing your tasks can overcome stress even if you are a professional or a student or maid. Imagine when you are school going student, complete homework gave you happiness all the time. Today you stopped going to your school but homework has not been stopped putting on your head. Now let’s smile you’ll complete all of your homework.

8. Stay connected with your interested area

At the moment what are you? A student of a professional, if you are jobber then your interested area may be your profession and if you are a student then your area of interest should be technology and researches. Because of this habit, your progress will be on upside direction always.

9. Avoid brainwashing

What is an advertisement? Method of brainwashing, yes this is right. Besides it, you experience brainwashing also in your daily life. Let’s consider an example if someone offers you a high-cost watch in the low cast and you bought that watch even if you didn’t need that, here you have been brainwashed by the person. Later that watch may be a reason for stress because you had spent your money on the unnecessary thing.

No where is free lunch, use your logic.

10. Avoid negative people

Sometimes you realize there are many infectious and negative people around you and they always discourage. They may cause stress for you. please try to overlook them as much as possible.


I am waiting for your response to this written article, please comment.